Feat First: New Findings on the Relationship Between Walking and Creativity

"I Heart New York", Image by Gary McCabe

“I Heart New York”, Image by Gary McCabe

New York is an incredibly vast and complex city in a multitude of ways which, despite its extensive mass transit system, also makes it a great place to walk around. Many New Yorkers prefer to travel to their destinations by foot purely for the pleasure of it. I am proudly one among them.

Whether it is on the streets of NYC or anywhere else across the world, bipedal locomotion is a healthy, no cost and deeply sensory experience as you take in all of the sights and sounds along your route. It also gives you the opportunity to think to yourself. Whether it is pondering the particulars of “When am I going to get the laundry done?” up to and including “E=MC²”, plus a gazillion other possible thoughts and subjects in between, putting one foot in front of another and then starting off of your way will transport you to all kinds of intriguing places inside and outside of your head.

Researchers in US universities have recently found compelling evidence that walking can also be quite conducive to creativity. This was the subject of a most interesting article on Quartz.com posted on April 10, 2016, entitled Research Backs Up the Instinct That Walking Improves Creativity, by Olivia Goldhill. I highly recommend reading this in its entirety. I will summarize and add some additional context to this, and then pose some of my own pedestrian questions.

Walking the Walk

"Walk", Image by Paul Evans

“Walk”, Image by Paul Evans

In an earlier article posted on the Stanford University News website on April 24, 2014, entitled Stanford Study Finds Walking Improves Creativity, by May Wong, researchers reported improvements in their test subjects’ Guilford’s alternate uses (GAU) test of creative divergent thinking and their compound remote associates (CRA) test of convergent thinking, conducted during and immediately after walking. The report itself is called Give Your Ideas Some Legs: The Positive Effect of Walking on Creative Thinking, by Marily Oppezzo, Ph.D. and Daniel L. Schwartz, Ph.D.. I also recommend reading both of these publications in their entirety (but please walk, don’t run, while doing so).

The effects seen upon the test subjects’ levels of creativity were nearly equivalent whether they were walking outside or else on a treadmill inside while facing a wall. It was the act of walking itself rather than the surroundings that was responsible.

Dr. Schwartz said that the “physiological changes” related to walking are “very complicated”. The reason why walking benefits “so many thinkers” is not readily apparent. However, he thinks “that the brain is focusing on doing a task it’s quite good at”. As a result, walking relaxes people and enables them to think freely.

While it is scientifically well-known that exercise can improve an individual’s mood, the underlying reason remains unclear whether, in its “more intense forms”, exercise has the same effect when compared to walking. (For the full details on this, the article links to a report entitled The Exercise Effect, by Kirsten Weir, which was the cover story in the December 2011 edition of the Monitor of Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 11.)

Walking the Talk

"Coming and Going", Image by David Robert Bliwas

“Coming and Going”, Image by David Robert Bliwas

Barbara Oakley, is an engineering professor at Oakland University and the author of A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra), (TarcherPerigee, 2014), about effective learning. Her text includes the beneficial effects of walking. In an interview, she took the position that it is incorrect to assume that people are only learning when they are “focused”. Rather, she believes that walking enables us to “subconsciously process and think in a different way”. This has helped her in her own work when she has become “stuck”. After she takes a walk for 15 minutes, she finds that her ideas begin to flow again.

Some therapists have also recently tried to use the benefits of walking outdoors while conducting sessions with their clients. For example, Clay Cockrell, a therapist in New York, believes that this activity permits “more free form thinking”. He sees 35 to 40 clients each week using this approach and has found them grateful for the opportunity to do so.

Mr. Cockrell believes that New Yorkers mostly travel from destination to destination and, as he says are “never just outside out and about”.

[I respectfully disagree on that last point as I stated in my opening.]

My Questions

  • In order to achieve the full benefits of increased creativity while walking, is it necessary not to have other distractions, specifically mobile phones open, at the same time? That is, should we put away the smartphone?
  • Alternatively, does listening to the music streams or podcast downloads on our phones have any effect upon our creativity while walking?
  • Does walking and talking with other people have a positive or negative effect upon creativity? Should walking be kept to a solo activity when specifically done to spend time thinking about something?

LinkNYC Rollout Brings Speedy Free WiFi and New Opportunities for Marketers to New York

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 5, Image by Alan Rothman

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 5, Image by Alan Rothman

Back in the halcyon days of yore before the advent of smartphones and WiFi, there were payphones and phone booths all over of the streets in New York. Most have disappeared, but a few scattered survivors have still managed to hang on. An article entitled And Then There Were Four: Phone Booths Saved on Upper West Side Sidewalks, by Corey Kilgannon, posted on NYTimes.com on February 10, 2016, recounts the stories of some of the last lonely public phones.

Taking their place comes a highly innovative new program called LinkNYC (also @LinkNYC and #LinkNYC). This initiative has just begun to roll out across all five boroughs with a network of what will become thousands of WiFi kiosks providing free and way fast free web access and phone calling, plus a host of other online NYC support services. The kiosks occupy the same physical spaces as the previous payphones.

The first batch of them has started to appear along Third Avenue in Manhattan. I took the photos accompanying this post of one kiosk at the corner of 14th Street and Third Avenue. While standing there, I was able to connect to the web on my phone and try out some of the LinkNYC functions. My reaction: This is very cool beans!

LinkNYC also presents some potentially great new opportunities for marketers. The launch of the program and the companies getting into it on the ground floor were covered in a terrific new article on AdWeek.com on February 15, 2015 entitled What It Means for Consumers and Brands That New York Is Becoming a ‘Smart City’, by Janet Stilson. I recommend reading it in its entirety. I will summarize and annotate it to add some additional context, and pose some of my own ad-free questions.

LinkNYC Set to Proliferate Across NYC

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 2, Image by Alan Rothman

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 2, Image by Alan Rothman

When completed, LinkNYC will give New York a highly advanced mobile network spanning the entire city. Moreover, it will help to transform it into a very well-wired “smart city“.¹ That is, an urban area comprehensively collecting, analyzing and optimizing vast quantities of data generated by a wide array of sensors and other technologies. It is a network and a host of network effects where a city learns about itself and leverages this knowledge for multiple benefits for it citizenry.²

Beyond mobile devices and advertising, smart cities can potentially facilitate many other services. The consulting firm Frost & Sullivan predicts that there will be 26 smart cities across the globe during by 2025. Currently, everyone is looking to NYC to see how the implementation of LinkNYC works out.

According to Mike Gamaroff, the head of innovation in the New York office of Kinetic Active a global media and marketing firm, LinkNYC is primarily a “utility” for New Yorkers as well as “an advertising network”. Its throughput rates are at gigabit speeds thereby making it the fastest web access available when compared to large commercial ISP’s average rates of merely 20 to 30 megabits.

Nick Cardillicchio, a strategic account manager at Civiq Smartscapes, the designer and manufacturer of the LinkNYC kiosks, said that LinkNYC is the only place where consumers can access the Net at such speeds. For the AdWeek.com article, he took the writer, Janet Stilson, on a tour of the kiosks include the one at Third Avenue and 14th Street, where one of the first ones is in place. (Coincidentally, this is the same kiosk I photographed for this post.)

There are a total of 16 currently operational for the initial testing. The WiFi web access is accessible with 150 feet of the kiosk and can range up to 400 feet. Perhaps those New Yorkers actually living within this range will soon no longer need their commercial ISPs.

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 4, Image by Alan Rothman

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 4, Image by Alan Rothman

The initial advertisers appearing in rotation on the large digital screen include Poland Spring (see the photo at the right), MillerCoors, Pager and Citibank. Eventually “smaller tablet screens” will be added to enable users to make free domestic voice or video calls. As well, they will present maps, local activities and emergency information in and about NYC. Users will also be able to charge up their mobile devices.

However, it is still too soon to assess and quantify the actual impact on such providers. According to David Krupp, CEO, North America, for Kinetic, neither Poland Spring nor MillerCoors has produced an adequate amount of data to yet analyze their respective LinkNYC ad campaigns. (Kinetic is involved in supporting marketing activities.)

Commercializing the Kiosks

The organization managing LinkNYC, the CityBridge consortium (consisting of Qualcomm, Intersection, and Civiq Smartscapes) , is not yet indicating when the new network will progress into a more “commercial stage”. However, once the network is fully implemented with the next few years, the number of kiosks might end up being somewhere between 75,000 and 10,000. That would make it the largest such network in the world.

CityBridge is also in charge of all the network’s advertising sales. These revenues will be split with the city. Under the 12-year contract now in place, this arrangement is predicted to produce $500M for NYC, with positive cash flow anticipated within 5 years. Brad Gleeson, the chief commercial officer at Civiq, said this project depends upon the degree to which LinkNYC is “embraced by Madison Avenue” and the time need for the network to reach “critical mass”.

Because of the breadth and complexity of this project, achieving this inflection point will be quite challenging according to David Etherington, the chief strategy officer at Intersection. He expressed his firm’s “dreams and aspirations” for LinkNYC, including providing advertisers with “greater strategic and creative flexibility”, offering such capabilities as:

  • Dayparting  – dividing a day’s advertising into several segments dependent on a range of factors about the intended audience, and
  • Hypertargeting – delivering advertising to very highly defined segments of an audience

Barry Frey, the president and CEO of the Digital Place-based Advertising Association, was also along for the tour of the new kiosks on Third Avenue. He was “impressed” by the capability it will offer advertisers to “co-locate their signs and fund services to the public” for such services as free WiFi and long-distance calling.

As to the brand marketers:

  • MillerCoors is using information at each kiosk location from Shazam, for the company’s “Sounds of the Street” ad campaign which presents “lists of the most-Shazammed tunes in the area”. (For more about Shazam, see the December 10, 2014 Subway Fold post entitled Is Big Data Calling and Calculating the Tune in Today’s Global Music Market?)
  • Poland Spring is now running a 5-week campaign featuring a digital ad (as seen in the third photo above). It relies upon “the brand’s popularity in New York”.

Capturing and Interpreting the Network’s Data

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 1, Image by Alan Rothman

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 1, Image by Alan Rothman

Thus far, LinkNYC has been “a little vague” about its methods for capturing the network’s data, but has said that it will maintain the privacy of all consumers’ information. One source has indicated that LinkNYC will collect, among other points “age, gender and behavioral data”. As well, the kiosks can track mobile devices within its variably 150 to 400 WiFi foot radius to ascertain the length of time a user stops by.  Third-party data is also being added to “round out the information”.³

Some industry experts’ expectations of the value and applications of this data include:

  • Helma Larkin, the CEO of Posterscope, a New York based firm specializing in “out-of- home communications (OOH)“, believes that LinkNYC is an entirely “new out-of-home medium”. This is because the data it will generate “will enhance the media itself”. The LinkNYC initiative presents an opportunity to build this network “from the ground up”. It will also create an opportunity to develop data about its own audience.
  • David Krupp of Kinetic thinks that data that will be generated will be quite meaningful insofar as producing a “more hypertargeted connection to consumers”.

Other US and International Smart City Initiatives

Currently in the US, there is nothing else yet approaching the scale of LinkNYC. Nonetheless, Kansas City is now developing a “smaller advertiser-supported  network of kiosks” with wireless support from Sprint. Other cities are also working on smart city projects. Civiq is now in discussions with about 20 of them.

Internationally, Rio de Janeiro is working on a smart city program in conjunction with the 2016 Olympics. This project is being supported by Renato Lucio de Castro, a consultant on smart city projects. (Here is a brief video of him describing this undertaking.)

A key challenge facing all smart city projects is finding officials in local governments who likewise have the enthusiasm for efforts like LinkNYC. Michael Lake, the CEO of Leading Cities, a firm that help cities with smart city projects, believes that programs such as LinkNYC will “continue to catch on” because of the additional security benefits they provide and the revenues they can generate.

My Questions

  • Should domestic and international smart cities to cooperate to share their resources, know-how and experience for each other’s mutual benefit? Might this in some small way help to promote urban growth and development on a more cooperative global scale?
  • Should LinkNYC also consider offering civic support services such as voter registration or transportation scheduling apps as well as charitable functions where pedestrians can donate to local causes?
  • Should LinkNYC add some augmented reality capabilities to enhance the data capabilities and displays of the kiosks? (See these 10 Subway Fold posts covering a range of news and trends on this technology.)

February 19, 2017 Update:  For the latest status report on LinkNYC nearly a year after this post was first uploaded, please see After Controversy, LinkNYC Finds Its Niche, by Gerald Schifman, on CrainsNewYork.com, dated February 15, 2017.


1.   While Googling “smart cities” might nearly cause the Earth to shift off its axis with its resulting 70 million hits, I suggest reading a very informative and timely feature from the December 11, 2015 edition of The Wall Street Journal entitled As World Crowds In, Cities Become Digital Laboratories, by Robert Lee Hotz.

2.   Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (W. W. Norton & Company, 2013), by Anthony M. Townsend, is a deep and wide book-length exploration of how big data and analytics are being deployed in large urban areas by local governments and independent citizens. I very highly recommend reading this fascinating exploration of the nearly limitless possibilities for smart cities.

3.   See, for example, How Publishers Utilize Big Data for Audience Segmentation, by Arvid Tchivzhel, posted on Datasciencecentral.com on November 17, 2015


These items just in from the Pop Culture Department: It would seem nearly impossible to film an entire movie thriller about a series of events centered around a public phone, but a movie called – – not so surprisingly – – Phone Booth managed to do this quite effectively in 2002. It stared Colin Farrell, Kiefer Sutherland and Forest Whitaker. Imho, it is still worth seeing.

Furthermore, speaking of Kiefer Sutherland, Fox announced on January 15, 2016 that it will be making 24: Legacy, a complete reboot of the 24 franchise, this time without him playing Jack Bauer. Rather, they have cast Corey Hawkins in the lead role. Hawkins can now be seen doing an excellent job playing Heath on season 6 of The Walking Dead. Watch out Grimes Gang, here comes Negan!!


New Job De-/script/-ions for Attorneys with Coding and Tech Business Skills

"CODE_n SPACES Pattern", Image by CODE_n

“CODE_n SPACES Pattern”, Image by CODE_n

The conventional wisdom among lawyers and legal educators has long been that having a second related degree or skill from another field can be helpful in finding an appropriate career path. That is, a law degree plus, among others, an MBA, engineering or nursing degree can be quite helpful in finding an area of specialization that leverages both fields. There are synergies and advantages to be shared by both the lawyers and their clients in these circumstances.

Recently, this something extra has expanded to include very timely applied tech and tech business skills. Two recently reported developments highlight this important emerging trend. One involves a new generation of attorneys who have a depth of coding skills and the other is an advanced law degree to prepare them for positions in the tech and entrepreneurial marketplaces. Let’s have a look at them individually and then what they might means together for legal professionals in a rapidly changing world. I will summarize and annotate both of them, and compile a few plain text questions of my own.

(These 26 other Subway Fold posts in the category of Law Practice and Legal Education have tracked many related developments.)

Legal Codes and Lawyers Who Code

1.  Associates

The first article features four young lawyers who have found productive ways to apply their coding skills at their law offices. This story appeared in the November 13, 2015 edition of The Recorder (subscription required) entitled Lawyers Who Code Hack New Career Path by Patience Haggin. I highly recommend reading it in its entirely.

During an interview at Apple for a secondment (a form of temporary arrangement where a lawyer from a firm will join the in-house legal department of a client)¹, a first-year lawyer named Canek Acosta was asked where he knew how to use Excel. He “laughed – and got the job” at Apple. In addition to his law degree, he had majored in computer science and math as an undergraduate.

Next, as a law student at Michigan State University College of Law, he participated in the LegalRnD – The Center for Legal Services Innovation, a program that teaches students to identify and solve “legal industry process bottlenecks”.  The Legal RnD website lists and describes all eight courses in their curriculum. It has also sent out teams to legal hackathons. (See the March 24, 2015 Subway Fold post entitled “Hackcess to Justice” Legal Hackathons in 2014 and 2015 for details on these events.)

Using his combination of skills, Acosta wrote scripts that automated certain tasks, including budget spreadsheets, for Apple’s legal department. As a result, some new efficiencies were achieved. Acosta believes that his experience at Apple was helpful in subsequently getting hired at the law firm of O’Melvany & Myers as an associate.

While his experience is currently uncommon, law firms are expected to increasingly recruit law students to become associates who have such contemporary skills in addition to their legal education. Furthermore, some of these students are sidestepping traditional roles in law practice and finding opportunities in law practice management and other non-legal staff roles that require a conflation of “legal analysis and hacking skills”.

Acosta further believes that a “hybrid lawyer-programmer” can locate the issues in law office operational workflows and then resolve them. Now at O’Melvany, in addition to his regular responsibilities as a litigation associate, he is also being asked to use his programming ability to “automate tasks for the firm or a client matter”.

At the San Francisco office of Winston & Strawn, first-year associate Joseph Mornin has also made good use of his programming skills. While attending UC-Berkeley School of Law, he wrote a program to assist legal scholars in generating “permanent links when citing online sources”. He also authored a browser extension called Bestlaw that “adds features to Westlaw“, a major provider of online legal research services.

2.  Consultants and Project Managers

In Chicago, the law firm Seyfarth Shaw has a legal industry consulting subsidiary called SeyfarthLean. One of their associate legal solutions architects is Amani Smathers.  She believes that lawyers will have to be “T-shaped” whereby they will need to combine their “legal expertise” with other skills including “programming, or marketing, or project management“.² Although she is also a graduate of Michigan State University College of Law, instead of practicing law, she is on a team that provides consulting for clients on, among other things, data analytics. She believes that “legal hacking jobs” may provide alternatives to other attorneys not fully interested in more traditional forms of law practices.

Yet another Michigan State law graduate, Patrick Ellis, is working as a legal project manager at the Michigan law firm Honigman Miller Schwartz and Cohn. In this capacity, he uses his background in statistics to “develop estimates and pricing arrangements”. (Mr. Ellis was previously mentioned in a Subway Fold post on March 15, 2015, entitled Does Being on Law Review or Effective Blogging and Networking Provide Law Students with Better Employment Prospects?.)

A New and Unique LLM to be Offered Jointly by Cornell Law School and Cornell Tech

The second article concerned the announcement of a new 1-year, full-time Master of Laws program (which confers an “LLM” degree), to be offered jointly by Cornell Law School and Cornell Tech (a technology-focused graduate and research campus of Cornell in New York City). This LLM is intended to provide practicing attorneys and other graduates with specialized skills needed to support and to lead tech companies. In effect, the program combines elements of law, technology and entrepreneurship. This news was carried in a post on October 29, 2015 on The Cornell Daily Sun entitled Cornell Tech, Law School Launch New Degree Program by Annie Bui.

According to Cornell’s October 27, 2015 press release , students in this new program will be engaged in “developing products and other solutions to challenges posed by companies”. They will encounter real-world circumstances facings businesses and startups in today’s digital marketplace. This will further include studying the accompanying societal and policy implications.

The program is expected to launch in 2016. It will be relocated from a temporary site and then moved to the Cornell Tech campus on Roosevelt Island in NYC in 2017.

My Questions

  • What other types of changes, degrees and initiatives are needed for law schools to better prepare their graduates for practicing in the digital economy? For example, should basic coding principles be introduced in some classes such as first-year contracts to enable students to better handle matters involving Bitcoin and the blockchain when they graduate? (See these four Subway Fold posts on this rapidly expanding technology.)
  • Should Cornell Law School, as well as other law schools interested in instituting similar courses and degrees, consider offering them online? If not for full degree statuses, should these courses alternatively be accredited for Continuing Legal Education requirements?
  • Will or should the Cornell Law/Cornell Tech LLM syllabus offer the types of tech and tech business skills taught by the Michigan State’s LegalRnD program? What do each of these law schools’ programs discussed here possibly have to offer to each other? What unique advantage(s) might an attorney with an LLM also have if he or she can do some coding?
  • Are there any law offices out there that are starting to add an attorney’s tech skills and coding capabilities to their evaluation of potential job candidates? Are legal recruiters adding these criteria to job descriptions for searching they are conducting?
  • Are there law offices out there that are beginning to take an attorney’s tech skills and/or coding contributions into account during annual performance reviews? If not, should they now considering adding them and how should they be evaluated?

 


1.  Here is an informative opinion about the ethical issues involved secondment arrangements issued by the Association of the Bar of the City of New York Committee on Professional and Judicial Ethics.

2.  I had an opportunity to hear Ms. Smathers give a very informative presentation about “T-shaped skills” at the Reinvent Law presentation held in New York in February 2014.

Movie Review of “The Human Face of Big Data”

"Blue and Pink Fractal", Image by dev Moore

“Blue and Pink Fractal”, Image by dev Moore

What does big data look like, anyway?

To try to find out, I was very fortunate to have obtained a pass to see a screening of a most enlightening new documentary called The Human Face of Big Data. The event was held on October 20, 2015 at Civic Hall in the Flatiron District in New York.

The film’s executive producer, Rick Smolan, (@ricksmolan), first made some brief introductory remarks about his professional work and the film we were about to see. Among his many accomplishments as a photographer and writer, he was the originator and driving force behind the A Day in the Life series of books where teams of photographers were dispatched to take pictures of different countries for each volume in such places as, among others, the United States, Japan and Spain.

He also added a whole new meaning to a having a hand in casting in his field by explaining to the audience that he had recently fallen from a try on his son’s scooter and hence his right hand was in a cast.

As the lights were dimmed and the film began, someone sitting right in front of me did something that was also, quite literally, enlightening but clearly in the wrong place and at the wrong time by opening up a laptop with a large and very bright screen. This was very distracting so I quickly switched seats. In retrospect, doing so also had the unintentional effect of providing me with a metaphor for the film: From my new perspective in the auditorium, I was seeing a movie that was likewise providing me with a whole new perspective on this important subject.

This film proceeded to provide an engrossing and informative examination of what exactly is “big data”, how it is gathered and analyzed, and its relative virtues and drawbacks.¹ It accomplished all of this by addressing these angles with segments of detailed expositions intercut with interviews of leading experts. In his comments afterwards, Mr. Smolan described big data as becoming a form of “nervous system” currently threading out across our entire planet.

Other documentarians could learn much from his team’s efforts as they smartly surveyed the Big Dataverse while economically compressing their production into a very compact and efficient package. Rather than a paint by, well, numbers production with overly long technical excursions, they deftly brought their subject to life with some excellent composition and editing of a wealth of multimedia content.

All of the film’s topics and transitions between them were appreciable evenhanded. Some segments specifically delved into how big data systems vacuum up this quantum of information and how it positively and negatively affects consumers and other demographic populations. Other passages raised troubling concerns about the loss of personal privacy in recent revelations concerning the electronic operations conducted by the government and the private sector.

I found the most compelling part of the film to be an interview with Dr. Eric Topol, (@EricTopol), a leading proponent of digital medicine, using smart phones as a medical information platform, and empowering patients to take control of their own medical data.² He spoke about the significance of the massive quantities and online availability of medical data and what this transformation  mean to everyone. His optimism and insights about big data having a genuine impact upon the quality of life for people across the globe was representative of this movie’s measured balance between optimism and caution.

This movie’s overall impression analogously reminded me of the promotional sponges that my local grocery used to hand out.  When you returned home and later added a few drops of water to these very small, flat and dried out novelties, they quickly and voluminously expanded. So too, here in just a 52-minute film, Mr. Smolan and his team have assembled a far-reaching and compelling view of the rapidly expanding parsecs of big data. All the audience needed to access, comprehend and soak up all of this rich subject matter was an open mind to new ideas.

Mr. Smolan returned to the stage after the movie ended to graciously and enthusiastically answer questions from the audience. It was clear from the comments and questions that nearly everyone there, whether they were familiar or unfamiliar with big data, had greatly enjoyed this cinematic tour of this subject and its implications. The audience’s well-informed inquiries concerned the following topics:

  • the ethics and security of big data collection
  • the degrees to which science fiction is now become science fact
  • the emergence and implications of virtual reality and augment reality with respect to entertainment and the role of big data in these productions³
  • the effects and influences of big data in medicine, law and other professions
  • the applications of big data towards extending human lifespans

Mr. Smolan also mentioned that his film will be shown on PBS in 2016. When it becomes scheduled, I very highly recommend setting some time aside to view it in its entirety.

Big data’s many conduits, trends, policies and impacts relentlessly continue to extend their global grasp. The Human Face of Big Data delivers a fully realized and expertly produced means for comprehending and evaluating this crucial and unavoidable phenomenon. This documentary is a lot to absorb yet an apt (and indeed fully app-ed), place to start.

 


One of the premiere online resources for anything and everything about movies is IMDB.com. It has just reached its 25th anniversary which was celebrated in a post in VentureBeat.com on October 30, 2015, entitled 25 Years of IMDb, the World’s Biggest Online Movie Database by Paul Sawers.


1These 44 Subway Fold Posts covered many of the latest developments in different fields, marketplaces and professions in the category of Big Data and Analytics.

2.  See also this March 3, 2015 Subway Fold post reviewing Dr. Topol’s latest book, entitled Book Review of “The Patient Will See You Now”.

3These 11 Subway Fold Posts cover many of the latest developments in the arts, sciences, and media industries in the category of Virtual and Augmented Reality. For two of the latest examples, see an article from the October 20, 2015 edition of The New York Times entitled The Times Partners With Google on Virtual Reality Project by Ravi Somaiya, and an article on Fortune.com on September 27, 2015 entitled Oculus Teams Up with 20th Century Fox to Bring Virtual Reality to Movies by Michael Addady. (I’m just speculating here, but perhaps The Human Face of Big Data would be well-suited for VR formatting and audience immersion.)

Summary of the Bitcoin Seminar Held at Kaye Scholer in New York on October 15, 2015

"Bitcoin", Image by Tiger Pixel

“Bitcoin”, Image by Tiger Pixel

The market quote for Bitcoin on October 15, 2015 at 5:00 pm EST was $255.64 US according to CoinDesk.com on the site’s Price & Data page. At that same moment, I was very fortunate to have been attending a presentation entitled the Bitcoin Seminar that was just starting at the law firm of Kaye Scholer in midtown Manhattan. Coincidentally, the firm’s address is numerically just 5.64, well, whatevers¹ away at 250 West 55th Street.

Many thanks to Kaye Scholer and the members of the expert panel for putting together this outstanding presentation. My appreciation and admiration as well for the informative content and smart formatting in the accompanying booklet they provided to the audience.

Based upon the depth and dimensions of all that was learned from the speakers, everyone attending gained a great deal of knowledge and insight on the Bitcoin phenomenon. The speakers clearly and concisely surveyed its essential technologies, operations, markets, regulations and trends.

This was the first of a two-part program the firm is hosting. The second half, covering the blockchain, is scheduled on Thursday, November 5, 2015.

The panelists included:

The following are my notes from this 90-minute session:

1.  What is a “Virtual Currency” and the Infrastructure Supporting It?

  • Bitcoin is neither legal tender nor tied to a particular nation.
  • Bitcoin is the first means available to move value online without third-party trusted intermediaries.
  • Bitcoin involves a series of decentralized protocols, consisting entirely of software, for the transfer of value between parties.
  • Only 21 million Bitcoins will ever be created but they are highly divisible into much smaller units unit called “satoshis” (named after the mysterious and still anonymous creator of Bitcoin who goes by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto).
  • The network structure for these transfers is peer-to-peer, as well as transparent and secure.
  • Bitcoin is a genuine form of “cryptocurrency”, also termed “digital currency”²
  • The networks use strong encryption to secure the value and information being transferred.
  • The parties engaged in a Bitcoin transaction often intend for their virtual currency to be converted into actual fiat currency.

2.  Benefits of Bitcoin

  • Payments can be sent anywhere including internationally.
  • Transactions are borderless and can operate on a 24/7 basis.
  • Just like email, the network operates all the time.

3.  Bitcoin Mining and Bitcoin Miners

  • This is the process by which, and the people by whom, bitcoins are extracted and placed into circulation online.
  • “Miners” are those who use vast amounts of computing power to solve complex mathematical equations that, once resolved, produce new Bitcoins.
  • The miners’ motivations include:
    • the introduction of new Bitcoins
    • their roles as transaction validators and maintainers of the blockchain
  • All newly mined bitcoins need to be validated.
  • Minors are rewarded for their efforts with the bitcoins they extract and any additional fees that were volunteered along with pending transactions.
  • Miners must obey the network’s protocols during the course of their work.

4.  Security

  • Security is the central concern of all participants in Bitcoin operations.
  • Notwithstanding recent bad publicity concerning incidents and indictments for fraud (such as Mt. Gox), the vast majority of bitcoin transactions do not involve illegal activity.
  • The Bitcoin protocols prevent Bitcoins from being spent twice.
  • Measures are in place to avoid cryptography keys from being stolen or misused.
  • There is a common misconception that Bitcoin activity is anonymous. This is indeed not the case, as all transactions are recorded on the blockchain thus enabling anyone to look up the data.
  • Bitcoin operations and markets are becoming more mature and, in turn, relatively more resistant to potential threats.

5.  Using Bitcoins

  • Bitcoin is secured by individual crypto-keys which are required for “signing” in a transaction or exchange.
  • This system is distributed and individual keys are kept in different locations.
  • Once a transaction is “signed” it then goes online into the blockchain ledger³.
  • The crypto keys are highly secure to avoid tampering or interception by unintended parties.
  • Bitcoin can be structured so that either:
    • multiple keys are required to be turned at the same time on both sides of the transaction, or
    • only a single key is required to execute a transaction.
  • By definition, there are no traditional intermediaries (such as banks).

6.  Asset Custody and Valuation

  • Financial regulators see Bitcoin as being a money transmission.
  • Currently, the law says nothing about multi-keys (above).
  • Work is being done on drafting new model legislation in an attempt to define “custody” of Bitcoin as an asset.
  • Bitcoin services in the future will be programmatic and will not require the trusted third parties. For example, in a real estate transaction, if the parties agree to terms then the keys are signed. If not, an arbitrator can be used to turn the keys for the parties and complete the transaction. Thus, this method can be a means to perform settlements in the real world.
  • Auditing this process involves public keys with custodial ownership. In determining valuation, the question is whether “fair value” has been reached and agreed upon.
  • From an asset allocation perspective, it is instructive to compare Bitcoin to gold insofar as there is no fixed amount of gold in the world, but Bitcoin will always be limited to 21 million Bitcoins (see 1. above).

7.  US Regulatory Environment

  • Because of the Bitcoin market’s rapid growth in the past few years, US federal and state regulators have become interested and involved.
  • Bitcoin itself is not regulated. Rather, the key lies at the “chokepoints” in the system where Bitcoin is turned into fiat currency.
  • US states regulate the money transfer business. Thus, compliance is also regulated by state laws. For example, New York State’s Department of Financial Services issues a license for certain service companies in the Bitcoin market operating within the state called a BitLicense. California is currently considering similar legislation.
  • Federal money laundering laws must always be obeyed in Bitcoin transactions.
  • The panelists agreed that it is important for Bitcoin legislation is to protect innovation in this marketplace.
  • The Internal Revenue Service has determined Bitcoin to be a tangible personal asset. As a result, Bitcoin is an investment subject to capital gains. As well, it will be taxed if used to pay for goods and services

8.  Future Prospects and Predictions

  • Current compelling use cases for Bitcoin include high volume of cross-border transactions and areas of the world without stable governments.
  • Bitcoin’s success is not now a matter of if, but rather, when. It could eventually take the emergence of some form of Bitcoin 2.0 to ultimately succeed.
  • Currency is now online and is leading to innovations such as:
    • Programmable money and other new formats of digital currency.
    • Rights management for music services where royalties are sent directly to the artists. (See Footnote 3 below.)

9.  Ten Key Takeaway Points:

  • Bitcoin is a virtual currency but it is not anonymous.
  • The key legal consideration is that it involves a stateless but trusted exchange of value.
  • Bitcoin “miners” are creating the value and increasing in their computing sophistication to locate and solve equations to extract Bitcoins.
  • Security is the foremost concern of everyone involved with Bitcoin.
  • Because Bitcoin exchanges of value occur and settle quickly and transparently (on the blockchain ledger), there are major implications for online commerce and the securities markets.
  • Government regulators are now significantly involved and there are important distinctions between what the states and federal government can regulate.
  • The IRS has made a determination about the nature of Bitcoin as an asset, and its taxable status in paying for goods and services.
  • The crypto-keys and “multi-signing” process are essential to making Bitcoin work securely, with neither borders nor third-party intermediaries.
  • Real estate transactions seem to be well-suited for the blochchain (for example, recording mortgages).
  • Comparing Bitcoin to gold (as a commodity), can be instructive in understanding the nature of Bitcoin.

 


1.   Is there a conversion formula, equivalency or terminology for the transposition of address numerals into Bitcoin? If one soon emerges, it will add a whole new meaning to the notion of “street value”.

2See also this May 8, 2015 Subway Fold post entitled Book Review of “The Age of Cryptocurrency”.

3.  For two examples of other non-Bitcoin adaptations of blockchain technology (among numerous other currently taking place), see the August 21, 2015 Subway Fold post entitled Two Startups’ Note-Worthy Efforts to Adapt Blockchain Technology for the Music Industry and the September 10, 2015 Subway Fold post entitled Vermont’s Legislature is Considering Support for Blockchain Technology and Smart Contracts.

Musical “Omnivores” Proliferate as Tastes in Tunes are Becoming More Diversified

"2015 CMU Music Marathon- Webster Hall", Image by Feast of Music

“2015 CMU Music Marathon- Webster Hall”, Image by Feast of Music

Back when such things actually existed in the analog world, I worked in a large music store in the middle of Times Square in New York. There was an unofficial policy there that the music played throughout each day in the store was to always be a wide mix of musical genres and sub-genres, often including some very exotic sounds.

Having grown up with my radio perpetually tuned to what was then WNEW-FM 102.7,¹ all I ever knew about was rock and roll. However, because I had daily exposure in this music store to all of these other types of music such as jazz, classical, folk and international, it opened up a whole new world for me. To this day, I remain very grateful for this experience because it greatly expanded my appreciation and enjoyment of the endless diversity and talent of music, musicians and songwriters.

The other great thing about the store was that many of the people on the sales staff were, in their own way, experts in many different genres. Some of them were also aspiring musicians². Not only were they there to help sell music, but they readily provided deep and wide perspectives and histories about artists, performances and recordings. Regular customers shopped there principally because of this (way-before-the-web) access to this trove of knowledge.

This enduring memory for me is why a fascinating post on Phys.org on September 15, 2015, entitled The Rise of the Musical Omnivore (no author is credited), immediately captured my attention. I highly recommend reading it in its entirety. I will summarize and an-note-ate it, and pose some of my own, well, key questions.

New Study Re-examines Musical Preferences

Tastes in music have always been perceived as related to the listener’s societal “class”. However, recent research findings indicated that the “upper” classes are adding those types of music often associated with the “middle” and “lower” classes (although these terms are not specifically defined in the article). As well, “musical taste can become more independent” of class through “an intensive engagement with music”. (A Subway Fold post on August 11, 2015 entitled Rock It Science: New Study Equates Musical Tastes to Personality Traits, looked at this from another perspective.)

These findings and much more were published by a team of academic staff members from the Max Plank Institute (MPI) for Empirical Aesthetics and the University of Vienna online in Frontiers in Psychology  on August 20, 2015 in an article entitled Exploring the Musical Taste of Expert Listeners: Musicology Students Reveal Tendency Toward Omnivorous Taste. The authors are Paul Elvers, Diana Omigie, Wolfgang Fuhrmann and Timo Fischinger. I also recommend reading this full report.

These new types of more receptive listeners are termed ominvores whose musical preferences include a mix of styles, despite their original inclinations towards classical and jazz. This phenomenon is now being seen more commonly in music students, whereas previously it was limited to listeners in “higher social classes”. Among such students, half are them are such omnivores. A quarter of them will also listen to different genres “depending on their mood and the occasion”.

The researchers’ study focused upon the preferences of “expert listeners” such as music students as well as “average listeners”. The focus on the former group was to determine whether their “musical training and knowledge” led them to develop different tastes than those in the populations without this education. The study’s sample included 1,000 students from Germany and Austria who were either majoring or minoring (no pun intended), in music. They were queried on how frequently they listed to any musical genres including “rock, pop and classical music to punk, heavy metal, emo/screamo³, gospel, reggae and world music”.

Results and Analysis

Among the study’s findings were that:

  • Rock listeners listen to their music more often but rarely hear other genres.
  • Conventional listeners of classical, house and pop listeners listen to their music “moderately often”.
  • Engaged listeners listen “substantially more frequently” than the other two groups and, while most often listening to classical and jazz, are also more likely to regularly include folk and rock. Thus, this group is more likely to include the omnivores and exhibit a “generally higher intensity of music listening”.

According to Paul Elvers from the Max Plank Institute and one of the co-authors of the study, they critical issue here is how these groups are distributed within the musical expert and control groups.  His team found that:

  • 50% of music students were engaged listeners.
  • 36% of music students were conventional listeners
  • 13% of music students were rock listeners
  • 25% of the control group were engaged listeners
  • 50% of the control group were conventional listeners
  • 25% of the control group were rock listeners4

Mr. Elvers further believes that the findings about music students not showing a preference for classical is due to a change in their contemporary education where pop and rock have entered their curriculum at Humboldt University of Berlin. This is where most of the study’s participants originated.

Additional findings concluded:

  • Rock music listeners “form their own cluster”, while classic listeners showed the most receptiveness to other genres and thus the omnivores were more among them.
  • There was no meaningful correlation between “social origin and musical taste”.
  • Instead of “social origins”, knowledge of, and education in, music was much more determinative of the survey’s subjects’ receptiveness to “a broad musical repertoire”.

According to Melanie Wald-Furhmann, the Director of the Music Department at MPI for Empirical Aesthetics, because the students who were surveyed for the study are young, this may indicate a trend.  She further believes that this potential movement away from the connection between social identification and musical preferences could turn out to be an interesting development.

The researchers were aware of their study’s limits regarding the age and education levels of their sample students as not being representative of the entire population. They have begun a follow-up survey to “gain broader and more detailed findings”.

My Questions

  • Are the findings just as applicable to listeners in other countries, or are there differences from nation to nation and perhaps among geographic areas within each nation?
  • Are the definitions and recordings of what constitutes rock, jazz, folk, metal, classical and other genres also universal across nations and cultures, or do they varying at different locations around the world? If so, would further studies need to be taken to fully map out and understand these differences?
  • Has the universal availability of nearly all the world’s music throughout all sorts of online distribution channels also become a variable to be considered for further studies like this one?
  • How are the results of this study helpful to the marketers, media planners and executives of music companies and artists’ talent managers?
  • How might educators at the university level and earlier make use of this study in planning their curricula?

 


1.  For an excellent history of this once influential and popular station and rock radio during its heyday, I highly recommend a book entitled FM: The Rise and Fall of Rock Radio, by Richard Neer (2002). The author was a DJ on WNEW-FM during most of the station’s existence. For many years since then he has been a sports radio talk show host on WFAN in New York.

2.  One of my co-workers there once went for an audition when some group called Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band was looking for a new drummer. He did not get the gig. I wonder what ever happened to that Springsteen guy.

3.  This also perfectly described the collective response in New York on Wednesday night, October 22, 2015, when our  beloved New York Mets won the National League pennant. On to the World Series! GO METS!!!

4I suggest that everyone in all of these groups put aside their differences and watch the absolutely hilarious School of Rock starring Jack Black.

 

A Thrilling Visit to the New One World Observatory at the Top of the World Trade Center

World Trade Center One on August 29, 2015, looking west from Vesey Street.

World Trade Center One on August 29, 2015, looking west on Vesey Street.

On Saturday, August 29, 2015, I had the great pleasure of visiting the new One World Observatory at the top of the World Trade Center. The 360-degree view from the 101st, 102nd and 103rd floors was absolutely spectacular.

A 48-second elevator ride took visitors all of the way up to 103rd floor. On the four walls of the elevator was an immersive animation of New York rapidly rising and growing over its 500 year history. Once we arrived and left the elevator we were then guided forward and shown an extraordinary video for several minutes about the construction of the new One World Trade Center. The large screen went up and there was a breathtaking panoramic view of New York. The Observatory was then open for visitors to walk around, marvel at, and photograph the view. Fortunately, it was a clear and brilliantly sunny day.

I love New York, my hometown and residence for my entire life, more than I really know how to put into words. Seeing all of it in its full glory from so high up was nearly overwhelming.

If you live in the New York Metro area or you are ever here for a visit, I cannot recommend this experience highly enough. You will remember it for a long time.

I took all of the pictures in this post. I have arranged the views below moving from south to east to north to west. I hope they provide you with some sense of the beauty and scope of this great city.

 

Looking south, the Statue of Liberty is in the middle of New York Harbor.

 

Boats traveling south, passing by Governor's Island in New York Harbor. The Yellow boat in the middle is the Staten Island Ferry.

Boats traveling south, passing by Governor’s Island in New York Harbor. The yellow boat in the middle is the Staten Island Ferry.

 

The southern end of Manhattan in the Wall street area. The green area in the middle is Battery Park.

The southern end of Manhattan in the Wall Street area. The greenery in the middle right before the water is Battery Park.

 

Looking east, this is the historic Brooklyn Bridge connecting the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn.

Looking east, this is the historic Brooklyn Bridge connecting the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn.

 

Looking northeast, top to bottom is Queens, the East River, and the Lower West Side of Manhattan.

Looking northeast, top to bottom is Queens, the East River, and the lower eastern side of Manhattan.

 

Looking North, a very long view of Manhattan. The Empire State Building is in the middle left of this picture.

Looking North, a very long view of Manhattan. The Empire State Building is in the middle left.

 

Still looking north in Manhattan from a different view more towards the west.

Still looking north in Manhattan from a different view more towards the western side of the island.

 

Looking west, a series of boats sailing north on the Hudson River.

Looking northwest, a series of boats sailing north on the Hudson River. Jersey City is to the left.

 

Looking northwest, a wider perspective of the Hudson River.

Looking northwest, a longer perspective of the Hudson River.