Mary Meeker’s 2016 Internet Trends Presentation

"Blue Marble - 2002", Image by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

“Blue Marble – 2002”, Image by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

On June 1, 2016, at the 2016 Code Conference held this week in California, Mary Meeker, a world-renowned Internet expert and partner in the venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins, presented her fifteenth annual in-depth and highly analytical presentation on current Internet trends. It is an absolutely remarkable accomplishment that is highly respected throughout the global technology industry and economy. The video of her speech is available here on Recode.com

Her 2016 Internet Trends presentation file is divided into a series of eight main sections covering, among many other things: Internet user and financial growth rates, online advertising, generational market segments and technological preferences, new products and vendors, mobile screens for nearly everything, e-commerce, big data, privacy issues, video growth on social media platforms, messaging systems , smartphone growth,  voice interfaces, consumer spending, online security, connectivity, Facebook’s v. Google’s growth rates, and massive consumer markets in China and India. That is just the tip of the tip of the iceberg in this 213-slide file.

Ms. Meeker’s assessments and predictions here form an extraordinarily comprehensive and insightful piece of work. There is much here for anyone and everyone to learn and consider in the current and trending states nearly anything and everything online. Moreover, there are likely many potential opportunities for new and established businesses, as well as other institutions, within this file.

I very highly recommend that you set aside some time to thoroughly read through Ms. Meeker’s full presentation. You will be richly rewarded with knowledge and insight that can potentially yield a world of informative and practical dividends.

LinkNYC Rollout Brings Speedy Free WiFi and New Opportunities for Marketers to New York

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 5, Image by Alan Rothman

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 5, Image by Alan Rothman

Back in the halcyon days of yore before the advent of smartphones and WiFi, there were payphones and phone booths all over of the streets in New York. Most have disappeared, but a few scattered survivors have still managed to hang on. An article entitled And Then There Were Four: Phone Booths Saved on Upper West Side Sidewalks, by Corey Kilgannon, posted on NYTimes.com on February 10, 2016, recounts the stories of some of the last lonely public phones.

Taking their place comes a highly innovative new program called LinkNYC (also @LinkNYC and #LinkNYC). This initiative has just begun to roll out across all five boroughs with a network of what will become thousands of WiFi kiosks providing free and way fast free web access and phone calling, plus a host of other online NYC support services. The kiosks occupy the same physical spaces as the previous payphones.

The first batch of them has started to appear along Third Avenue in Manhattan. I took the photos accompanying this post of one kiosk at the corner of 14th Street and Third Avenue. While standing there, I was able to connect to the web on my phone and try out some of the LinkNYC functions. My reaction: This is very cool beans!

LinkNYC also presents some potentially great new opportunities for marketers. The launch of the program and the companies getting into it on the ground floor were covered in a terrific new article on AdWeek.com on February 15, 2015 entitled What It Means for Consumers and Brands That New York Is Becoming a ‘Smart City’, by Janet Stilson. I recommend reading it in its entirety. I will summarize and annotate it to add some additional context, and pose some of my own ad-free questions.

LinkNYC Set to Proliferate Across NYC

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 2, Image by Alan Rothman

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 2, Image by Alan Rothman

When completed, LinkNYC will give New York a highly advanced mobile network spanning the entire city. Moreover, it will help to transform it into a very well-wired “smart city“.¹ That is, an urban area comprehensively collecting, analyzing and optimizing vast quantities of data generated by a wide array of sensors and other technologies. It is a network and a host of network effects where a city learns about itself and leverages this knowledge for multiple benefits for it citizenry.²

Beyond mobile devices and advertising, smart cities can potentially facilitate many other services. The consulting firm Frost & Sullivan predicts that there will be 26 smart cities across the globe during by 2025. Currently, everyone is looking to NYC to see how the implementation of LinkNYC works out.

According to Mike Gamaroff, the head of innovation in the New York office of Kinetic Active a global media and marketing firm, LinkNYC is primarily a “utility” for New Yorkers as well as “an advertising network”. Its throughput rates are at gigabit speeds thereby making it the fastest web access available when compared to large commercial ISP’s average rates of merely 20 to 30 megabits.

Nick Cardillicchio, a strategic account manager at Civiq Smartscapes, the designer and manufacturer of the LinkNYC kiosks, said that LinkNYC is the only place where consumers can access the Net at such speeds. For the AdWeek.com article, he took the writer, Janet Stilson, on a tour of the kiosks include the one at Third Avenue and 14th Street, where one of the first ones is in place. (Coincidentally, this is the same kiosk I photographed for this post.)

There are a total of 16 currently operational for the initial testing. The WiFi web access is accessible with 150 feet of the kiosk and can range up to 400 feet. Perhaps those New Yorkers actually living within this range will soon no longer need their commercial ISPs.

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 4, Image by Alan Rothman

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 4, Image by Alan Rothman

The initial advertisers appearing in rotation on the large digital screen include Poland Spring (see the photo at the right), MillerCoors, Pager and Citibank. Eventually “smaller tablet screens” will be added to enable users to make free domestic voice or video calls. As well, they will present maps, local activities and emergency information in and about NYC. Users will also be able to charge up their mobile devices.

However, it is still too soon to assess and quantify the actual impact on such providers. According to David Krupp, CEO, North America, for Kinetic, neither Poland Spring nor MillerCoors has produced an adequate amount of data to yet analyze their respective LinkNYC ad campaigns. (Kinetic is involved in supporting marketing activities.)

Commercializing the Kiosks

The organization managing LinkNYC, the CityBridge consortium (consisting of Qualcomm, Intersection, and Civiq Smartscapes) , is not yet indicating when the new network will progress into a more “commercial stage”. However, once the network is fully implemented with the next few years, the number of kiosks might end up being somewhere between 75,000 and 10,000. That would make it the largest such network in the world.

CityBridge is also in charge of all the network’s advertising sales. These revenues will be split with the city. Under the 12-year contract now in place, this arrangement is predicted to produce $500M for NYC, with positive cash flow anticipated within 5 years. Brad Gleeson, the chief commercial officer at Civiq, said this project depends upon the degree to which LinkNYC is “embraced by Madison Avenue” and the time need for the network to reach “critical mass”.

Because of the breadth and complexity of this project, achieving this inflection point will be quite challenging according to David Etherington, the chief strategy officer at Intersection. He expressed his firm’s “dreams and aspirations” for LinkNYC, including providing advertisers with “greater strategic and creative flexibility”, offering such capabilities as:

  • Dayparting  – dividing a day’s advertising into several segments dependent on a range of factors about the intended audience, and
  • Hypertargeting – delivering advertising to very highly defined segments of an audience

Barry Frey, the president and CEO of the Digital Place-based Advertising Association, was also along for the tour of the new kiosks on Third Avenue. He was “impressed” by the capability it will offer advertisers to “co-locate their signs and fund services to the public” for such services as free WiFi and long-distance calling.

As to the brand marketers:

  • MillerCoors is using information at each kiosk location from Shazam, for the company’s “Sounds of the Street” ad campaign which presents “lists of the most-Shazammed tunes in the area”. (For more about Shazam, see the December 10, 2014 Subway Fold post entitled Is Big Data Calling and Calculating the Tune in Today’s Global Music Market?)
  • Poland Spring is now running a 5-week campaign featuring a digital ad (as seen in the third photo above). It relies upon “the brand’s popularity in New York”.

Capturing and Interpreting the Network’s Data

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 1, Image by Alan Rothman

Link.NYC WiFi Kiosk 1, Image by Alan Rothman

Thus far, LinkNYC has been “a little vague” about its methods for capturing the network’s data, but has said that it will maintain the privacy of all consumers’ information. One source has indicated that LinkNYC will collect, among other points “age, gender and behavioral data”. As well, the kiosks can track mobile devices within its variably 150 to 400 WiFi foot radius to ascertain the length of time a user stops by.  Third-party data is also being added to “round out the information”.³

Some industry experts’ expectations of the value and applications of this data include:

  • Helma Larkin, the CEO of Posterscope, a New York based firm specializing in “out-of- home communications (OOH)“, believes that LinkNYC is an entirely “new out-of-home medium”. This is because the data it will generate “will enhance the media itself”. The LinkNYC initiative presents an opportunity to build this network “from the ground up”. It will also create an opportunity to develop data about its own audience.
  • David Krupp of Kinetic thinks that data that will be generated will be quite meaningful insofar as producing a “more hypertargeted connection to consumers”.

Other US and International Smart City Initiatives

Currently in the US, there is nothing else yet approaching the scale of LinkNYC. Nonetheless, Kansas City is now developing a “smaller advertiser-supported  network of kiosks” with wireless support from Sprint. Other cities are also working on smart city projects. Civiq is now in discussions with about 20 of them.

Internationally, Rio de Janeiro is working on a smart city program in conjunction with the 2016 Olympics. This project is being supported by Renato Lucio de Castro, a consultant on smart city projects. (Here is a brief video of him describing this undertaking.)

A key challenge facing all smart city projects is finding officials in local governments who likewise have the enthusiasm for efforts like LinkNYC. Michael Lake, the CEO of Leading Cities, a firm that help cities with smart city projects, believes that programs such as LinkNYC will “continue to catch on” because of the additional security benefits they provide and the revenues they can generate.

My Questions

  • Should domestic and international smart cities to cooperate to share their resources, know-how and experience for each other’s mutual benefit? Might this in some small way help to promote urban growth and development on a more cooperative global scale?
  • Should LinkNYC also consider offering civic support services such as voter registration or transportation scheduling apps as well as charitable functions where pedestrians can donate to local causes?
  • Should LinkNYC add some augmented reality capabilities to enhance the data capabilities and displays of the kiosks? (See these 10 Subway Fold posts covering a range of news and trends on this technology.)

February 19, 2017 Update:  For the latest status report on LinkNYC nearly a year after this post was first uploaded, please see After Controversy, LinkNYC Finds Its Niche, by Gerald Schifman, on CrainsNewYork.com, dated February 15, 2017.


1.   While Googling “smart cities” might nearly cause the Earth to shift off its axis with its resulting 70 million hits, I suggest reading a very informative and timely feature from the December 11, 2015 edition of The Wall Street Journal entitled As World Crowds In, Cities Become Digital Laboratories, by Robert Lee Hotz.

2.   Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (W. W. Norton & Company, 2013), by Anthony M. Townsend, is a deep and wide book-length exploration of how big data and analytics are being deployed in large urban areas by local governments and independent citizens. I very highly recommend reading this fascinating exploration of the nearly limitless possibilities for smart cities.

3.   See, for example, How Publishers Utilize Big Data for Audience Segmentation, by Arvid Tchivzhel, posted on Datasciencecentral.com on November 17, 2015


These items just in from the Pop Culture Department: It would seem nearly impossible to film an entire movie thriller about a series of events centered around a public phone, but a movie called – – not so surprisingly – – Phone Booth managed to do this quite effectively in 2002. It stared Colin Farrell, Kiefer Sutherland and Forest Whitaker. Imho, it is still worth seeing.

Furthermore, speaking of Kiefer Sutherland, Fox announced on January 15, 2016 that it will be making 24: Legacy, a complete reboot of the 24 franchise, this time without him playing Jack Bauer. Rather, they have cast Corey Hawkins in the lead role. Hawkins can now be seen doing an excellent job playing Heath on season 6 of The Walking Dead. Watch out Grimes Gang, here comes Negan!!


Charge of the Light Brigade: Faster and More Efficient New Chips Using Photons Instead of Electrons

"PACE - PEACE" Image by Etienne Valois

“PACE – PEACE” Image by Etienne Valois

Alfred, Lord Tennyson wrote his immortal classic poem, The Charge of the Light Brigade, in 1854. It was to honor the dead heroes of a doomed infantry charge at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War. Moreover, it strikingly portrayed the horrors of war. In just six short verses, he created a monumental work that has endured ever since for 162 years.

The poem came to mind last week after reading two recent articles on seemingly disparate topics. The first was posted on The New Yorker’s website on December 30, 2015 entitled In Silicon Valley Now, It’s Almost Always Winner Takes All by Om Malik. This is highly insightful analysis of how and why tech giants such as Google in search, Facebook in social networking, and Uber in transportation, have come to dominate their markets. In essence, competition is a fierce and relentless battle in the global digital economy. The second was an article on CNET.com posted on December 23, 2015 entitled Chip Promises Faster Computing with Light, Not Electrical Wires by Stephan Shankland. I highly recommend reading both of them in their entirety.

Taken together, the homonym of “light” both in historical poetry and in tech, seems to tie these two posted pieces together insofar as contemporary competition in tech markets is often described in military terms and metaphors. Focusing on that second story here for purposes of this blog post, about a tantalizing advance in chip design and fabrication, will this survive as it moves forward into the brutal and relentlessly “winner takes all” marketplace? I will summarize and annotate this story, and pose some of my own, hopefully en-light-ening questions.

Forward, the Light Brigade

A team of researchers, all of whom are university professors, including Vladimir Stojanovic from the University of California at Berkeley who led the development, Krste Asanovic also from Berkeley, Rajeev Ram from MIT, and Milos Popovic from the University of Colorado at Boulder, have created a new type of processing chip “that transmits data with light”. As well, its architecture significantly increases processing speed while reducing power consumption.  A report on the team’s work was published in an article in the December 24, 2015 issue of Nature (subscription required) entitled Single-chip Microprocessor That Communicates Directly Using Light by Chen Sun, Mark T. Wade, Yunsup Lee, et al.

This approach, according to Wikipedia, of “using silicon as an optical medium”, is called silicon photonics. IBM (see this link) and Intel (see this link)  have likewise been involved in R&D in this field, but have yet to introduce anything ready for the market.

However, this team of university researchers believes their new approach might be introduced commercially within a year. While their efforts do not make chips run faster per se, the photonic elements “keep chips supplied with data” which avoids them having to lose time by idling. Thus, they can process data faster.

Currently (no pun intended), electrical signals traverse metal wiring across the world on computing and communications devices and networks. For data traveling greater national and international distances, the electronic signals are transposed into light and sent along on high-speed fiber-optic cables. Nonetheless, this approach “isn’t cheap”.

Half a League Onward

What the university researchers’ team has done is create chips with “photonic components” built into them. If they succeed in scaling-up and commercializing their creation, consumers will be likely the beneficiaries. These advantages will probably manifest themselves first when used in data centers that, in turn, could speed up:

  • Google searches
  • Facebook image recognition
  • Other “performance-intensive features not economical today”
  • Remove processing bottlenecks and conserve battery life in smartphones and other personal computing platforms

Professor Stojanovic believes that one of their largest challenges if is to make this technology affordable before it can be later implemented in consumer level computing and communications devices. He is sanguine that such economies of scale can be reached. He anticipates further applications of this technology to enable chips’ onboard processing and memory components to communicate directly with each other.

Additional integrations of silicon photonics might be seen in the lidar remote sensing systems for self-driving cars¹, as well as brain imaging² and environmental sensors. It also holds the potential to alter the traditional methods that computers are assembled. For example, the length of cables is limited to the extent that data can pass through them quickly and efficiently before needed amplification along the way. Optical links may permit data to be transferred significant further along network cabling. The research team’s “prototype used 10-meter optical links”, but Professor Stojanovic believes this could eventually be lengthened to a kilometer. This could potentially result in meaningful savings in energy, hardware and processing efficiency.

Two startups that are also presently working in the silicon photonics space include:

My Questions:

  • Might another one of silicon photonics’ virtues be that it is partially fabricated from more sustainable materials, primarily silicon derived from sand rather than various metals?
  • Could silicon photonics chips and architectures be a solution to the very significant computing needs of the virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) systems that will be coming onto the market in 2016? This issue was raised in a most interesting article posted on Bloomberg.com on December 30, 2015 entitled Few Computers Are Powerful Enough to Support Virtual Reality by Ian King. (See also these 13 Subway Fold posts on a range of VR and AR developments.)
  • What other new markets, technologies and opportunities for entrepreneurs and researchers might emerge if the university research team’s chips achieve their intended goals and succeed in making it to market?

May 17, 2017 UpdateFor an update on one of the latest developments in photonics with potential applications in advanced computing and materials science, see Photonic Hypercrystals Are Now a Reality and Light Will Never Be the Same, by Dexter Johnson, posted on May 10, 2017, on IEEESpectrum.com. 


1.  See these six Subway Fold posts for references to autonomous cars.

2.  See these four Subway Fold posts concerning certain developments in brain imaging technology.

Terahertz Spectrum Technology May Produce Major Increases in Wireless Network Speeds

Communications Hardware", Image by Tom Blackwell

“Communications Hardware”, Image by Tom Blackwell

Remember when upgrading from a 14.4 baud modem to a 33.6 baud modem felt as though you had moved from bicycle to Indy racing car online? What about when you had DSL installed and you had never experienced anything like it? How about when you next had a T1 line at the office and then a cable modem hooked up at home? All of these drastic jumps in transmission speeds helped to fuel the exponential growth in the web’s evolving architecture, rich and limitless content, and integration into nearly every aspect of modern life.

While the next disruptive jump in speed has yet to occur, researchers and developers are currently working on technology to exploit a still little used area of the electromagnetic spectrum called terahertz (“THz”) waves. Should this come to pass, wireless bandwidth rates could potentially increase by 100 fold or more over today’s WiFi and mobile networks. Beyond increasing the velocity at which videos of cats playing the piano can be distributed and viewed, this technology could have a major impact on the entire world of wireless access, services and devices.

Nonetheless, despite the alluring promise of THz wireless, some key engineering challenges remain to be solved.

The latest significant advance in this early field was reported in a most interesting article posted on Phys.org on September 14, 2015 entitled Physicists Develop Key Component for Terahertz Wireless. (No author is credited.) I will summarize, annotate and pose some of my own questions derived from the blog-wave portion of the spectrum.

A team of researchers from Brown University and Osaka University have developed the “first system for multiplexing terahertz waves”. This is, by definition, a technological means to share multiple communication streams over a single resource such as a cable simultaneously carrying multiple TV channels or phone calls. (However, it is distinctly different from the multiplex movie theaters currently showing a dozen or more of the latest movies at time along with offering way overpriced snacks at the concession stands.) Another device often needed to reverse this process is called a demultiplexer.

The development team’s work on this advancement was published in the September 14, 2015 online edition of Nature Photonics in a paper entitled Frequency-division Multiplexing in the Terahertz Range Using a Leaky-wave Antenna by Nicholas J. Karl, Robert W. McKinney, Yasuaki Monnai, Rajind Mendis & Daniel M. Mittleman. (A subscription is required for full access.)

The “leaky wave antenna” at the core of this consists of “two metal plates place in parallel to form a waveguide“. As the THz waves move across this waveguide they “leak out a[t] different angles depending on their frequency”. In turn, the various frequencies can disperse individual streams of data riding on these THz waves. Devices at the receiving end will be able to capture this data from a unique stream.

According to the researchers, their new approach has the advantage of being able “to adjust the spectrum bandwidth that can be allocated to each channel”. This could be quite helpful if and when their new multiplexer is added to a data network. In effect, bandwidth can be apportioned to the network users’ individual data needs.

The team is planning to continue their development of the THz multiplexer. This includes integrating, testing and improving it in a “prototype terahertz network” they are building. A member of the team and co-author of their paper, Daniel M. Mittleman, hopes that their work will inspire other researchers to join in developing other original THz network technologies.

Assuming that THz wireless networks will be deployed in the future, my questions are as follows:

  • Will today’s wireless service providers adapt their networks if THz technology proves to be technically and economically feasible? Will new providers emerge in the telecom marketplace?
  • What new types of services will become enabled by THz?
  • Will it bring broadband transmission rates to underserved geographic areas around the world?
  • How will providers model and test the elasticity of the pricing for their THz services? Are current pricing schemes sufficient or are new alternatives needed?
  • What entrepreneurial opportunities await for companies developing THz systems and those leveraging its capabilities for content creation and delivery?
  • As more advertising continues to migrate to wireless platforms, how will marketing and content strategists use THz to their advantage?

New Chips are Using Deep Learning to Enhance Mobile, Camera and Auto Image Processing Capabilities

"Smartphone Photography", Image by AvenueTheory

“Smartphone Photography”, Image by AvenueTheory

We interface with our devices’ screens for inputs and outputs nearly all day and everyday. What many of the gadgets will soon be able to display and, moreover, understand about digital imagery is about to take a significant leap forward. This will be due to the pending arrival of new chips embedded into their circuitry that are enabled by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Let’s have a look.

This story was reported in a most interesting article on TechnologyReview.com entitled Silicon Chips That See Are Going to Make Your Smartphone Brilliant by Tom Simonite on May 14, 2015. I will sum, annotate and pose some question about it.

The key technology behind these new chips is an AI methodology called deep learning. In these 10 recent Subway Fold posts, deep learning has been covered in a range of applications in various online and real world marketplaces including, among others, entertainment, news, social media, law, medicine, finance and education. The emergence of these smarter new chips will likely bring additional significant enhancements to all of them and many others insofar as their abilities to better comprehend the nature of the content of images.

Two major computer chip companies, Synopsis and Qualcomm, and the Chinese search firm Baidu, are developing systems, based upon deep learning, for mobile devices, autos and other screen-based hardware. They were discussed by their representatives at the May 2015 Embedded Vision Summit held on Tuesday, May 12, 2015, in Santa Clara, California. The companies’ representatives were:

  • Pierre Paul, the director of Research and Development at Synopsis, who presented a demo of a new chip core that “recognized speed limit signs” on the road for vehicles and enabled facial recognition for security apps. This chip uses less power than current chips on the market and, moreover, could add some “visual intelligence” to phone and car apps, and security cameras.  (Here is the link to the abstracts of the presentations, listed by speaker including Mr. Paul’s entitled Low-power Embedded Vision: A Face Tracker Case Study from the Summit’s website.)
  • Ren Wu, Distinguished Scientist, Baidu Institute of Deep Learning, said that deep learning-based chips are important for computers used for research, and called for making such intelligence as ubiquitous as possible. (Here is the link to the abstracts of the presentations, listed by speaker including Mr. Wu’s, entitled Enabling Ubiquitous Visual Intelligence Through Deep Learning from the Summit’s website.)

Both Wu and Gehlhaar said that adding more intelligence to mobile device’s ability to recognize photos could be used to address the privacy implications of some apps by lessening the quantity of personal data they upload to the web.

My questions are as follows:

  • Whether and how should social networks employ these chips? For example, what if such visually intelligent capabilities were to be added to the recently rolled out live video apps Periscope and MeerKat on Twitter?
  • Will these chips be adapted to the forthcoming commercial augmented and virtual reality systems (as discussed in the five recent Subway Fold posts)? If so, what new capabilities might they add to these environments?
  • What additional privacy and security concerns will need to be addressed by manufacturers, consumers and regulators as these chips are introduced into their respective marketplaces?

The Next Wave in High Tech Materials Science

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Optical Profilometer Metamaterials, Image by Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Metamaterials are not something used by the United Federation of Planets’ engineers to build the next iteration of the Starship Enterprise (which, btw, would be designated the NCC-1701-F, although some may differ).  Rather, they are materials fabricated in such a manner that they can bend light, sound, radar, radio and seismic waves. The technological implication of applying these materials in antennas, radar, cosmetics and soundproofing may prove to be transformative according to a fascinating article in the March 23, 2015 edition of The New York Times entitled The Waves of the Future May Bend Around Metamaterials, by John Markoff.  I will summarize this, add some links and annotations, and pose some questions.

These substances achieve their remarkable effect by being composed of microscopic “subcomponents” that are smaller than the wavelengths of the types of waves they are engineered to bend in certain ways. That is, they can be used to “manipulate” the waves in designated manners “that do not normally occur”.

Researchers have been developing a variety of metamaterials for the past 15 years. Their work has recently begun yielding some genuine innovations in systems that incorporate these advances in original and innovative ways. Some of these latest developments include:

  • Airbus*and Lamda Guard are about to test a coating on airline windows to deter attempts to blind them with laser pointing devices by someone on the ground. (See NYC Man Charged With Pointing Laser at Aircraft, in the March 15, 2015 edition of The New York Times for a recent case of this here in New York.)
  • Echodyne is working on several types of antennas, radar-based navigation systems and other devices.
  • Evolv Technology is developing airport security systems.
  • Kymeta has partnered with Intelsat to engineer “land-based and satellite-based intelligent antennas”.
  • Dr. Xiang Zhang at the University of California at Berkeley, is working on, among other metamaterials projects, “superlenses” for microscopes that might increase their magnification powers beyond today’s capabilities. He has received inquiries from “military contractors and commercial companies” and even cosmetics companies concerning metamaterials. As well, he and other developers are creating apps for optical computer networks.
  • Professor Vinod Menon and his research team at the City College of New York, in their Laboratory for Nano and Micro Photonics, have demo-ed “light emission from ultrafast-switching LEDs” made from metamaterials. Using this and other related developments may also lead to significantly faster optical computers networks.
  • Menard Construction published a paper in 2013 entitled Seismic Metamaterial: How to Shake Friends and Influence Waves? by S. Brûlé, E.H. Javelaud, S. Enoch and S. Guenneau, where the company successfully tested “a metamaterial grid of empty cylindrical columns bored into soil” in an effort to reduce the effects of a “simulated earthquake”. (The phases in quotes in the last sentence were from the NYTimes article, not the research paper itself.)

The article concludes on a note of great optimism from Professor Zhang about the future of metamaterials. I completely agree. Once these apps and development projects make their way into commercial markets and other scientists and companies from different fields and industries take greater notice, I strongly believe that new forms of metamaterials and their applications will emerge that have not even been imagined yet. Like any dramatically new technology, this will find its applications perhaps in some very unlikely and surprising sectors.

Just to start off, what about medical devices, optical computing and storage devices, visual displays, sound and video recording, and automotive safety technology? Let’s keep watching and see what springs from people’s needs and creativity.

Finally, just a quick mention of a recently published book that received many excellent reviews for a lively and engaging series of stories about the key developments of basic materials and materials science through history entitled Stuff Matters: Exploring the Marvelous Materials That Shape Our Man-Made World by Mark Midownik (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014).

[While I hope that this blog post will be enlightening, please be assured that no light waves were bent or harmed during the drafting process.]

_______________________

Another innovative project by Airbus to develop a drone for bringing Net access to remote and under-served regions was covered in the November 26, 2014 Subway Fold post entitled Robots and Diamonds and Drones, Aha! Innovations on the Horizon for 2015.

 

Mapping the Distribution of Mobile Device Operating Systems in New York

“Busy Times Square”, Image by Jim Larrison

Scott Galloway, a Clinical Professor of Marketing at NYU Stern School of Business, consultant and entrepreneur, recently gave a remarkable and captivating 15-minute presentation at this year’s Digital Life Design 15 (DLD15) Conference. This event was held in Munich on January 18 through 20, 2015. He examined the four most dominant global companies in the digital world and predicted those among them whose market values might  rise or fall. These included Amazon, Google, Apple and Facebook. Combined, their current market value is more than $1 trillion (yes, that’s trillion with a “t“).

The content and delivery of Professor’s Galloway’s talk is something that I think you will not soon forget. Whether his insights are in whole or in part correct, his talk will motivate you to think about  these four companies who, individually and as a group, exert such monumental economic, technical, commercial, and cultural influence across the entirety of the web. I highly recommend that you click-through and fully view this video.

Towards the end of his presentation, Professor Galloway clicked onto a rather astonishing slide of a heat map of New York City encoded with data points indicating mobile devices using Apple’s IoS, Android or Blackberry operating systems. This particular part of the presentation was covered in a most interesting article entitled Fun Maps: Heat Map of Mobile Operating Systems in NYC by Michelle Young on UntappedCities.com on March 31, 2015. The article adds three very informative additional graphics individually illuminated the spread of each OS. I will briefly recap this report, provide some links and annotations, and add a few comments of my own.

Professor Galloway interprets the results as indicating a correlation between each OS and the relative wealth of different neighborhoods in NYC: IoS devices are more prevalent in areas of higher incomes while Android appears more concentrated in lower income areas and suburbia.

However, Ms. Young believes this mapping is “misleading” and cites another article on UntappedCities.com entitled Beautiful Maps and the Lies They Tell, posted on February 20, 2014. This carefully refuted a series of data-mapped visualizations that were first published and interpreted as showing that only wealthier people used fitness apps.

Furthermore, there have been a series of Twitter posts in response to this heat map stating that the colors used for the heat map (red for IoS, green for Android and purple for Blackberry), might be misleading due to some optical blurring in the colors and geotagged tweets from 2011 to 2013. (X-ref to the March 20, 2015 Subway Fold post entitled Studies Link Social Media Data with Personality and Health Indicators, for other examples of geotagging.) In effect, there may be a structural bias whereby “If Twitter users tend to be on Apple products”.

The data and heat maps notwithstanding, as a New York City native and life-long resident, my own completely unscientific observations tell me that IoS and Android are more evenly split both in terms of absolute numbers and any correlation to the relative wealth of any given neighbor hood. The most obvious thing that jumped out at me was that each day millions of people commute all around the city, mostly into and around Manhattan. However,  this does not seem to have been taken into account. Thus, while User X’s mobile device may show him or her in a wealthier area of Manhattan, he or she might well live in, and commute from, another more working class neighborhood from a considerable distance away.

Rather than using such static heat maps, I would propose that a time-series of readings and data be taken continuously over a week or so. Next, I suggest applying some customized algorithms and analytics to smooth out, normalize and intuit the data. My instincts tell me that the results would indicate a much more homogenous mix of mobile OSes across all or most of the neighborhoods here.