New Job De-/script/-ions for Attorneys with Coding and Tech Business Skills

"CODE_n SPACES Pattern", Image by CODE_n

“CODE_n SPACES Pattern”, Image by CODE_n

The conventional wisdom among lawyers and legal educators has long been that having a second related degree or skill from another field can be helpful in finding an appropriate career path. That is, a law degree plus, among others, an MBA, engineering or nursing degree can be quite helpful in finding an area of specialization that leverages both fields. There are synergies and advantages to be shared by both the lawyers and their clients in these circumstances.

Recently, this something extra has expanded to include very timely applied tech and tech business skills. Two recently reported developments highlight this important emerging trend. One involves a new generation of attorneys who have a depth of coding skills and the other is an advanced law degree to prepare them for positions in the tech and entrepreneurial marketplaces. Let’s have a look at them individually and then what they might means together for legal professionals in a rapidly changing world. I will summarize and annotate both of them, and compile a few plain text questions of my own.

(These 26 other Subway Fold posts in the category of Law Practice and Legal Education have tracked many related developments.)

Legal Codes and Lawyers Who Code

1.  Associates

The first article features four young lawyers who have found productive ways to apply their coding skills at their law offices. This story appeared in the November 13, 2015 edition of The Recorder (subscription required) entitled Lawyers Who Code Hack New Career Path by Patience Haggin. I highly recommend reading it in its entirely.

During an interview at Apple for a secondment (a form of temporary arrangement where a lawyer from a firm will join the in-house legal department of a client)¹, a first-year lawyer named Canek Acosta was asked where he knew how to use Excel. He “laughed – and got the job” at Apple. In addition to his law degree, he had majored in computer science and math as an undergraduate.

Next, as a law student at Michigan State University College of Law, he participated in the LegalRnD – The Center for Legal Services Innovation, a program that teaches students to identify and solve “legal industry process bottlenecks”.  The Legal RnD website lists and describes all eight courses in their curriculum. It has also sent out teams to legal hackathons. (See the March 24, 2015 Subway Fold post entitled “Hackcess to Justice” Legal Hackathons in 2014 and 2015 for details on these events.)

Using his combination of skills, Acosta wrote scripts that automated certain tasks, including budget spreadsheets, for Apple’s legal department. As a result, some new efficiencies were achieved. Acosta believes that his experience at Apple was helpful in subsequently getting hired at the law firm of O’Melvany & Myers as an associate.

While his experience is currently uncommon, law firms are expected to increasingly recruit law students to become associates who have such contemporary skills in addition to their legal education. Furthermore, some of these students are sidestepping traditional roles in law practice and finding opportunities in law practice management and other non-legal staff roles that require a conflation of “legal analysis and hacking skills”.

Acosta further believes that a “hybrid lawyer-programmer” can locate the issues in law office operational workflows and then resolve them. Now at O’Melvany, in addition to his regular responsibilities as a litigation associate, he is also being asked to use his programming ability to “automate tasks for the firm or a client matter”.

At the San Francisco office of Winston & Strawn, first-year associate Joseph Mornin has also made good use of his programming skills. While attending UC-Berkeley School of Law, he wrote a program to assist legal scholars in generating “permanent links when citing online sources”. He also authored a browser extension called Bestlaw that “adds features to Westlaw“, a major provider of online legal research services.

2.  Consultants and Project Managers

In Chicago, the law firm Seyfarth Shaw has a legal industry consulting subsidiary called SeyfarthLean. One of their associate legal solutions architects is Amani Smathers.  She believes that lawyers will have to be “T-shaped” whereby they will need to combine their “legal expertise” with other skills including “programming, or marketing, or project management“.² Although she is also a graduate of Michigan State University College of Law, instead of practicing law, she is on a team that provides consulting for clients on, among other things, data analytics. She believes that “legal hacking jobs” may provide alternatives to other attorneys not fully interested in more traditional forms of law practices.

Yet another Michigan State law graduate, Patrick Ellis, is working as a legal project manager at the Michigan law firm Honigman Miller Schwartz and Cohn. In this capacity, he uses his background in statistics to “develop estimates and pricing arrangements”. (Mr. Ellis was previously mentioned in a Subway Fold post on March 15, 2015, entitled Does Being on Law Review or Effective Blogging and Networking Provide Law Students with Better Employment Prospects?.)

A New and Unique LLM to be Offered Jointly by Cornell Law School and Cornell Tech

The second article concerned the announcement of a new 1-year, full-time Master of Laws program (which confers an “LLM” degree), to be offered jointly by Cornell Law School and Cornell Tech (a technology-focused graduate and research campus of Cornell in New York City). This LLM is intended to provide practicing attorneys and other graduates with specialized skills needed to support and to lead tech companies. In effect, the program combines elements of law, technology and entrepreneurship. This news was carried in a post on October 29, 2015 on The Cornell Daily Sun entitled Cornell Tech, Law School Launch New Degree Program by Annie Bui.

According to Cornell’s October 27, 2015 press release , students in this new program will be engaged in “developing products and other solutions to challenges posed by companies”. They will encounter real-world circumstances facings businesses and startups in today’s digital marketplace. This will further include studying the accompanying societal and policy implications.

The program is expected to launch in 2016. It will be relocated from a temporary site and then moved to the Cornell Tech campus on Roosevelt Island in NYC in 2017.

My Questions

  • What other types of changes, degrees and initiatives are needed for law schools to better prepare their graduates for practicing in the digital economy? For example, should basic coding principles be introduced in some classes such as first-year contracts to enable students to better handle matters involving Bitcoin and the blockchain when they graduate? (See these four Subway Fold posts on this rapidly expanding technology.)
  • Should Cornell Law School, as well as other law schools interested in instituting similar courses and degrees, consider offering them online? If not for full degree statuses, should these courses alternatively be accredited for Continuing Legal Education requirements?
  • Will or should the Cornell Law/Cornell Tech LLM syllabus offer the types of tech and tech business skills taught by the Michigan State’s LegalRnD program? What do each of these law schools’ programs discussed here possibly have to offer to each other? What unique advantage(s) might an attorney with an LLM also have if he or she can do some coding?
  • Are there any law offices out there that are starting to add an attorney’s tech skills and coding capabilities to their evaluation of potential job candidates? Are legal recruiters adding these criteria to job descriptions for searching they are conducting?
  • Are there law offices out there that are beginning to take an attorney’s tech skills and/or coding contributions into account during annual performance reviews? If not, should they now considering adding them and how should they be evaluated?

May 3, 2017 Update:  For a timely report on the evolution of new careers emerging in law practice for people with legal and technical training and experience, I highly recommend a new article publish in the ABA Journal entitled  Law Architects: New Legal Jobs Make Technology Part of the Career Path, by Jason Tashea, dated, May 1, 2017.


1.  Here is an informative opinion about the ethical issues involved secondment arrangements issued by the Association of the Bar of the City of New York Committee on Professional and Judicial Ethics.

2.  I had an opportunity to hear Ms. Smathers give a very informative presentation about “T-shaped skills” at the Reinvent Law presentation held in New York in February 2014.

Possible Futures for Artificial Intelligence in Law Practice

As the legal marketplace continues to see significant economic and productivity gains from many practice-specific technologies, is it possible that attorneys themselves could one day be supplanted by sophisticated systems driven by artificial intelligence (AI) such as IBM’s Watson?

Jeopardy championships aside for the moment, leading legal technology expert and blogger Ron Friedmann has posted a fascinating report and analysis on August 24, 2014 on his Prism Legal Strategic Technology Blog entitled Meet Your New Lawyer, IBM Watson. He covers an invitation-only session held for CIO’s of large global law firms held at this summer’s annual meeting held by International Legal Technology Association (ILTA) where a Watson senor manager made a presentation to this group. Ron, as he always does on his consistently excellent blog, offers his own deep and valuable insights on the practical and economic implications regarding the possible adaptation of Watson to the work done at large law firms. I highly recommend clicking-through and full read of this post.

(X-ref also to an earlier post here ILTA’s New Multi-dimensional Report on the Future of Legal Information Technology.)

As I was preparing to write this post a few days ago, lo and behold, my September 2014 subscription edition of WIRED arrived. It carries a highly relevant feature about a hush-hush AI startup, entitled Siri’s Inventors Are Building a Radical New AI That Does Anything You Ask, by Steven Levy. This is about the work of the founders of Viv Labs who are developing the next generation of AI technology. Even in a crowded field where many others have competed, the article indicates that this new company may really be onto something very new. That is, AI as a form of utility that can:

  • Access and integrate vast numbers of big data sources
  • Continually teach itself to do new things and autonomously generate supporting code to accomplish them
  • Handle voice queries on mobile devices that involve compound and multi-level questions,steps and sources to resolve

Please check out the full text of this article for all of the details about how Viv’s technology works and its exciting prospective uses.

That said, would Viv’s utility architecture as opposed to Watson’s larger scale technology be more conducive to today’s legal applications? Assuming for the moment that it’s technically feasible, how would the ability to operate by such voice-based AI input/output affect the operation and quality of results for, say, legal research services, document assembly applications, precedent libraries, enterprise search, wikis, extranets, and perhaps even Continuing Legal Education courses? What might be a tipping point towards a greater engagement of AI in the law across many types of practices and office settings? Might this result in in-house counsel bringing more work to their own staffs rather than going to outside counsel? Would public interest law offices be able to provide more economical services to clients who cannot normal afford to pay legal fees? Might this have further impacts upon the trends towards fixed fee-based billing arrangements?